What causes nausea or vomiting?

Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often comes before vomiting.

Vomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying (throwing up) of stomach contents through the mouth.

What causes nausea or vomiting?  

(1) Motion sickness or seasickness  

(2) Early stages of pregnancy (nausea occurs in approximately 50%-90% of all pregnancies; vomiting in 25%-55%) 

(3) Medication-induced vomiting

(4) Intense pain

(5) Emotional stress (such as fear)

(6) Gallbladder disease

(7) Food poisoning infections (such as the stomach flu)

(8) Overeating

(9) A reaction to certain smells or odors

(10) Heart attack

(11) Concussion or brain injury

(12) Brain tumor

(13) Ulcers

(14) Some forms of cancer Bulimia or other   

(15) Psychological illnesses

(16) Gastroparesis or slow stomach emptying (a condition that can be seen in people with diabetes)

(17) Ingestion of toxins or excessive amounts of alcohol

(18) Bowel obstruction 

(19) Appendicitis

(20) The causes of vomiting differ according to age. For children, it is common for vomiting to occur from a viral infection, food poisoning, milk allergy, motion sickness, overeating or feeding, coughing, or blocked intestines and illnesses in which the child has a high fever. Nausea and vomiting depending on the underlying cause of which there are many.

Large volume vomiting with little nausea is common in intestinal obstruction whereas constant nausea with little or no vomiting is often due to metabolic abnormalities or drugs. Vomiting related raised intracranial pressure is worse in the morning. Different receptors are activated, depending on the cause or cause of nausea (for reference check the image). For example, the dopamine receptor in the chemotactic trigger zone in the fourth ventricle is stimulated by metabolic and drug causes of nausea, whereas gastric irritation stimulates histamine receptors in the vomiting center via the vagus nerve.

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